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African chiefs urged to apologise for slave trade

USD 2. Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Explore Now. Buy As Gift. Bondage and spiritual slavery have ravaged this generation like an hydra-headed monster. He was a man of remarkable stature. I should judge as much as six feet and six or seven inches high, two feet across the shoulders, and every way well proportioned. He was a man of remarkable strength and resolution, affable, kind and gentle, ruling with equity and moderation. The army of the enemy was large, I should suppose consisting of about six thousand men.

Their leader was called Baukurre. After destroying the old prince, they decamped and immediately marched towards the sea, lying to the west, taking with them myself and the women prisoners. In the march, a scouting party was detached from the main army. To the leader of this party I was made waiter, having to carry his gun, etc.

As we were a-scouting, we came across a herd of fat cattle consisting of about thirty in number. These we set upon and immediately wrested from their keepers, and afterwards converted them into food for the army. The enemy had remarkable success in destroying the country wherever they went. For as far as they had penetrated they laid the habitations waste and captured the people.

The distance they had now brought me was about four hundred miles. All the march I had very hard tasks imposed on me, which I must perform on pain of punishment. I was obliged to carry on my head a large flat stone used for grinding our corn, weighing, as I should suppose, as much as twenty-five pounds; besides victuals, mat and cooking utensils. Though I was pretty large and stout of my age, yet these burdens were very grievous to me, being only six years and a half old. The invaders then pinioned the prisoners of all ages and sexes indiscriminately, took their flocks and all their effects, and moved on their way towards the sea.

On the march, the prisoners were treated with clemency, on account of their being submissive and humble. Having come to the next tribe, the enemy laid siege and immediately took men, women, children, flocks, and all their valuable effects. They then went on to the next district, which was contiguous to the sea, called in Africa, Anamaboo.

The enemies' provisions were then almost spent, as well as their strength. The inhabitants, knowing what conduct they had pursued, and what were their present intentions, improved the favorable opportunity, attacked them, and took enemy, prisoners, flocks and all their effects. I was then taken a second time. All of us were then put into the castle and kept for market.

On a certain time, I and other prisoners were put on board a canoe, under our master, and rowed away to a vessel belonging to Rhode Island, commanded by Captain Collingwood, and the mate, Thomas Mumford. While we were going to the vessel, our master told us to appear to the best possible advantage for sale. I was bought on board by one Robertson Mumford, steward of said vessel, for four gallons of rum and a piece of calico, and called VENTURE, on account of his having purchased me with his own private venture.

Thus I came by my name. All the slaves that were bought for that vessel's cargo were two hundred and sixty. The first of the time of living at my master's own place, I was pretty much employed in the house, carding wool and other household business. In this situation I continued for some years, after which my master put me to work out of doors.

After many proofs of my faithfulness and honesty, my master began to put great confidence in me. Unlike the rich and powerful of Europe and Asia, those in Africa were not landowners, since African law did not recognize the right to own, sell, or rent land as property. Private wealth usually derived from control of dependents--clients, pawns, wives in polygynous households, and slaves.

Digital History

African law recognized slavery and the right of owners to alienate slaves. A relatively low population density and an absence of the concept of property in land encouraged the development of slavery in West and Central Africa.

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Slavery had been important in the medieval empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai, and slave exports had supplemented the export of gold. Although African slavery was not a benign institution, slaves in Africa were used in a wider variety of ways than in the New World: they were employed as agricultural workers, soldiers, servants, and officials. The great majority of slaves sold to Europeans were not slaves in Africa; they were usually recent war captives or victims of banditry and judicial proceedings.

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Even under harsh chattel slavery, manumission was possible for a significant number of slaves and slaves usually had a right to keep any monetary earnings and buy their freedom. Multi-generational slavery was uncommon; in part this reflected the fact that most African slaves were women. During the early years of enslavement, African slaves usually worked under supervision. Then many became "allotment slaves," who worked five or six days until about 2 p. In the third stage settled slaves spent most of their time working their land in exchange for a fixed obligation, usually what it took to feed an adult male for a year.

During the era of the Atlantic slave trade, many of those enslaved, perhaps a majority, were kept in Africa. The slave trade reduced the adult male population by about 20 percent, dramatically altering the ratio of working adults to dependents and of adult men to adult women. Another result was to reduce traditional male forms of work, such as hunting, fishing, livestock rearing, the clearing of fields, the chopping down of trees, and the digging up of roots.

The result was a less protein rich diet and a reduction in agricultural productivity.

Game of Thrones 6x09 - Daenerys and her three dragons against the slave masters at Meereen

About 14 percent of slaves sent to the New World were children under 14; 56 percent were male adults; and 30 percent were female adults. Myth: Slavery is a product of capitalism. Fact: Slavery is older than the first human records. Myth: Slavery is a product of Western Civilization.


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Fact: Slavery is virtually a universal institution. Myth: Slavery in the non-western world was a mild, benign, and non-economic institution. Fact: Slaves were always subject to torture, sexual exploitation, and arbitrary death. Myth: Slavery was an economically backward and inefficient institution. Fact: Many of the most progressive societies in the world had slaves. Myth: Slavery was always based on race. Fact: Not until the 15th century was slavery associated primarily with people of African descent.


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Myth: New World slaves came exclusively from West Africa. Fact: Half of all New World slaves came from central Africa. Myth: Europeans physically enslaved Africans or hired mercenaries who captured people for export or that African rulers were "Holocaust abettors" who were themselves to blame for the slave trade. Fact: Europeans did engage in some slave raiding; the majority of people who were transported to the Americas were enslaved by Africans in Africa. Myth: Many slaves were captured with nets. Fact: There is no evidence that slaves were captured with nets; war was the most important source of enslavement.

History in Focus

Myth: Kidnapping was the usual means of enslavement. Fact: War was the most important source of enslavement; it would be incorrect to reduce all of these wars to slave raids. Myth: The Middle Passage stripped enslaved Africans of their cultural heritage and transformed them into docile, passive figures wholly receptive to the cultural inputs of their masters. Fact: Slaves engaged in at least shipboard rebellions. Myth: Slavery played a marginal role in the history of the Americas Fact: African slaves were the only remedy for the labor shortages that plagued Europe's New World dominions.

Fact: Slave labor made it profitable to mine for precious metal and to harvest sugar, indigo, and tobacco; slaves taught whites how to raise such crops as rice and indigo. Myth: Europeans arrived in the New World in far larger numbers than did Africans. Fact: Before , the number of Africans outstripped the combined total of European immigrants by a ratio of 3, 4, or 5 to 1. Myth: The first slaves arrived in what is now the U.

Myth: The slave trade permanently broke slaves' bonds with Africa. Fact: Slaves were able to draw upon their African cultural background and experiences and use them as a basis for life in the New World. Myth: Plantation life with its harsh labor, unstable families, and high mortality, made it difficult for Africans to construct social ties Fact: African nations persisted in America well into the 18th century and even the early 19th century. Myth: Masters assigned names to slaves or slaves imitated masters' systems of naming.

Fact: In fact, slaves were rarely named for owners.