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Any children of such a union were considered legitimate. Harold probably entered the relationship in part to secure support in his new earldom. Harold's elder brother Sweyn was exiled in after abducting the abbess of Leominster. Sweyn's lands were divided between Harold and a cousin, Beorn. During this campaign, Sweyn returned to England and attempted to secure a pardon from the king, but Harold and Beorn refused to return any of their lands, and Sweyn, after leaving the royal court, took Beorn hostage and later killed him.

When in Earl Godwin was sent into exile, Harold accompanied his father and helped him to regain his position a year later. This arguably made him the most powerful figure in England after the king. Harold also became Earl of Hereford in , and replaced his late father as the focus of opposition to growing Norman influence in England under the restored monarchy —66 of Edward the Confessor, who had spent more than 25 years in exile in Normandy. He led a series of successful campaigns —63 against Gruffydd ap Llywelyn of Gwynedd , king of Wales.

This conflict ended with Gruffydd's defeat and death in In , Harold apparently was shipwrecked at Ponthieu. There is much speculation about this voyage. William, at least, seems to have believed he had been offered the succession, but there must have been some confusion either on William's part or perhaps by both men, since the English succession was neither inherited nor determined by the reigning monarch.

Instead the Witenagemot , the assembly of the kingdom's leading notables, would convene after a king's death to select a successor. Other acts of Edward are inconsistent with his having made such a promise, such as his efforts to return his nephew Edward the Exile , son of King Edmund Ironside, from Hungary in There is general agreement that he left from Bosham , and was blown off course, landing at Ponthieu. He was captured by Guy I, Count of Ponthieu , and was then taken as a hostage to the count's castle at Beaurain , [20] Duke William arrived soon afterward and ordered Guy to turn Harold over to him.

Harold : the Last of the Saxon Kings — Complete by Lytton - Free Ebook

While crossing into Brittany past the fortified abbey of Mont Saint-Michel , Harold is recorded as rescuing two of William's soldiers from quicksand. They pursued Conan from Dol-de-Bretagne to Rennes , and finally to Dinan , where he surrendered the fortress's keys at the point of a lance. William presented Harold with weapons and arms, knighting him. The Bayeux Tapestry , and other Norman sources, then record that Harold swore an oath on sacred relics to William to support his claim to the English throne.

After Edward's death, the Normans were quick to point out that in accepting the crown of England, Harold had broken this alleged oath. The chronicler Orderic Vitalis wrote of Harold that he "was distinguished by his great size and strength of body, his polished manners, his firmness of mind and command of words, by a ready wit and a variety of excellent qualities.

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But what availed so many valuable gifts, when good faith, the foundation of all virtues, was wanting? Due to a doubling of taxation by Tostig in that threatened to plunge England into civil war, Harold supported Northumbrian rebels against his brother, Tostig , and replaced him with Morcar. This strengthened his acceptability as Edward's successor, but fatally split his own family, driving Tostig into alliance with King Harald Hardrada "Hard Ruler" of Norway. At the end of King Edward the Confessor fell into a coma without clarifying his preference for the succession. The intent of this charge remains ambiguous, as is the Bayeux Tapestry , which simply depicts Edward pointing at a man thought to represent Harold.

Initially, William could not get support for the invasion but, claiming that Harold had sworn on sacred relics to support his claim to the throne after having been shipwrecked at Ponthieu , William received the Church's blessing and nobles flocked to his cause.

The Last Saxon

In anticipation of the invasion, Harold assembled his troops on the Isle of Wight , but the invasion fleet remained in port for almost seven months, perhaps due to unfavourable winds. On 8 September, with provisions running out, Harold disbanded his army and returned to London.

On the same day Harald Hardrada of Norway, who also claimed the English crown [d] joined Tostig and invaded, landing his fleet at the mouth of the Tyne. Harold led his army north on a forced march from London, reached Yorkshire in four days, and caught Hardrada by surprise. According to Snorri Sturluson , before the battle a single man rode up alone to Harald Hardrada and Tostig. He gave no name, but spoke to Tostig, offering the return of his earldom if he would turn against Hardrada.

Tostig asked what his brother Harold would be willing to give Hardrada for his trouble. The rider replied "Seven feet of English ground, as he is taller than other men. Hardrada was impressed by the rider's boldness, and asked Tostig who he was. Tostig replied that the rider was Harold Godwinson himself. On 12 September William's fleet sailed from Normandy.

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On 27 September the Norman fleet set sail for England, arriving the following day at Pevensey on the coast of East Sussex. Harold's army marched miles kilometres to intercept William, who had landed perhaps 7, men in Sussex , southern England.

Harold established his army in hastily built earthworks near Hastings. The two armies clashed at the Battle of Hastings, at Senlac Hill near the present town of Battle close by Hastings on 14 October, where after nine hours of hard fighting, Harold was killed and his forces defeated. His brothers Gyrth and Leofwine were also killed in the battle, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The notion that Harold died by an arrow to the eye is a popular belief today, but this historical legend is subject to much scholarly debate.

A Norman account of the battle, Carmen de Hastingae Proelio "Song of the Battle of Hastings" , said to have been written shortly after the battle by Guy , Bishop of Amiens, says that Harold was killed by four knights, probably including Duke William, and his body dismembered. An earlier source, Amatus of Montecassino 's L'Ystoire de li Normant "History of the Normans" , written only twenty years after the battle of Hastings, contains a report of Harold being shot in the eye with an arrow, but this may be an early fourteenth-century addition.

A figure in the panel of the Bayeux Tapestry with the inscription "hic Harold Rex Interfectus Est" "here Harold the King has been killed" is depicted gripping an arrow that has struck his eye, but some historians have questioned whether this man is intended to be Harold or if Harold is intended as the next figure lying to the right almost supine, being mutilated beneath a horse's hooves. Etchings made of the Tapestry in the s show the standing figure with differing objects. Bernard de Montfaucon's engraving has a solid line resembling a spear being held overhand matching the manner of the figure to the left.

Stothard's water-colour drawing has, for the first time, a fletched arrow in the figure's eye. Although not apparent in the earlier depictions, the Tapestry today has stitch marks indicating the fallen figure once had an arrow in its eye. It has been proposed that the second figure once had an arrow added by over-enthusiastic nineteenth-century restorers that was later unstitched. This has been disputed by examining other examples from the Tapestry where the visual centre of a scene, not the location of the inscription, identifies named figures.

A further suggestion is that both accounts are accurate, and that Harold suffered first the eye wound, then the mutilation, and the Tapestry is depicting both in sequence. The account of the contemporary chronicler William of Poitiers , states that the body of Harold was given to William Malet for burial:. The two brothers of the King were found near him and Harold himself, stripped of all badges of honour, could not be identified by his face but only by certain marks on his body. His corpse was brought into the Duke's camp, and William gave it for burial to William, surnamed Malet, and not to Harold's mother, who offered for the body of her beloved son its weight in gold.

For the Duke thought it unseemly to receive money for such merchandise, and equally he considered it wrong that Harold should be buried as his mother wished, since so many men lay unburied because of his avarice. They said in jest that he who had guarded the coast with such insensate zeal should be buried by the seashore. Another source states that Harold's widow, Edith Swannesha , was called to identify the body, which she did by some private mark known only to her. Harold's strong association with Bosham , his birthplace, and the discovery in of an Anglo-Saxon coffin in the church there, has led some to suggest it as the place of King Harold's burial.

A request to exhume a grave in Bosham Church was refused by the Diocese of Chichester in December , the Chancellor having ruled that the chances of establishing the identity of the body as Harold's were too slim to justify disturbing a burial place.


The poem also claims Harold was buried by the sea, which is consistent with William of Poitiers' account and with the identification of the grave at Bosham Church that is only yards from Chichester Harbour and in sight of the English Channel. There were legends of Harold's body being given a proper funeral years later in his church at Waltham Holy Cross in Essex , which he had refounded in Legends also grew up that Harold had not died at Hastings but instead fled England or that he later ended his life as a hermit at Chester or Canterbury.

Harold's son Ulf, along with Morcar and two others, were released from prison by King William as he lay dying in Ulf threw his lot in with Robert Curthose , who knighted him, and then disappeared from history. For some twenty years Harold was married more danico Latin: "in the Danish manner" to Edyth Swannesha and had at least six children with her. She was considered Harold's mistress by the clergy. According to Orderic Vitalis , Harold was at some time betrothed to Adeliza , a daughter of William the Conqueror; if so, the betrothal never led to marriage.

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Edith had one son, named Harold , probably born posthumously. After her husband's death, Edith fled for refuge to her brothers, Edwin, Earl of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria, but both men made their peace with King William initially before rebelling and losing their lands and lives. Edith may have fled abroad possibly with Harold's mother, Gytha, or with Harold's daughter, Gytha. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 26 September Waltham Abbey, Essex , or Bosham , Sussex disputed. See also: Ancestry of the Godwins.

Main article: Battle of Hastings. Magnus had thus gained a claim to Denmark on Harthacnut's death but had not pursued this other crown. Hardrada, uncle and heir of Magnus, now claimed England on this basis. It is generally believed he knew of Harald Hardrada's plans and waited for Harold Godwinson to be weakened or engaged with fighting in the north before he proceeded with his own plans.

They had escaped to Leinster after the Battle of Hastings in where they were hosted by Diarmait. In and Diarmait lent them the fleet of Dublin for their attempted invasions of England. Once the battle lines were drawn, a general could commit his reserve or lead a unit into a charge, but was otherwise sharply limited in his ability to control his forces. The single biggest decision of every historical battlefield commander from the Macedonian Conquest to the War of the Roses has been drawing up the line of battle.

Shogun: Total War , with its clumsy forces, slow movement and limited control scheme, came close to capturing this reality. Medieval retained most of the tactical historicity of Shogun , though battles were notably more fluid. Rome abandoned historical realism almost entirely with cavalry that moved like cars and command-control that Colin Powell would envy.

I had heard mutterings that a fair number of grognards were disappointed in Rome for that reason. And in speaking with developer representatives at E3, I'd been told to expect Medieval II to be more realistic than Rome , so I had high hopes that the trend away from historical accuracy would reverse itself. Sadly, it did not. Tactical battle in Medieval II plays pretty much like Rome , except with even smaller unit sizes - meaning even more micromanagement!

The level of individual detail is increased, with thousands of individually animated soldiers marching and dying with a mouse click, but the result is largely devoid of historical realism. It might look impressive, but this isn't war as Richard Coeur De Lion fought it. In Medieval II , entire formations can basically sidestep to avoid incoming cavalry charges. My friends, the Saxon fyrd did not sidestep. The evolution is the same on the strategic side of gameplay: " Rome plus.

But in building its strategy game on Rome 's model rather than its namesake's, Medieval II loses the schiltrom among the spears or the forest among the trees.